Tag Archives: Ships

Nelson Bay or Nelson’s Bay?

Whatever may have been the original form of the name of this bay at Port Stephens, ‘Nelson’s Bay’ seems to have been usual in the late 1820s and 1830s.

In 1829 the Australian newspaper refers to Nelson’s Bay in reporting a near-disaster that overtook the New South Wales Attorney-General Alexander Baxter in the course of an attempted voyage from Newcastle to Sydney on the schooner Samuel. After departure from Newcastle, heavy squalls blew up at night, sails had to be taken in, and by 9 o’clock there were two feet of water in the hold. The pumps were inadequate, and passengers and all hands had to bale with buckets. The ship managed to limp into Port Stephens (spelled Port Stevens in the newspaper account) and came to rest in Nelson’s Bay, with 4 feet 7 inches of water in the hold. Some of the coal on board was taken off, the ship was reprovisioned and the pumps re-rigged, and finally the Samuel was able to make it safely to Sydney; but Mr. Baxter, who had helped with the baling, remained behind. ‘His exertions and fatigues … left him, by the latest accounts, in rather a feverish state.’

A shipboard adventure of quite another type was reported by the Sydney Gazette in 1835. Nine convicts, five of them assigned servants of William Charles Wentworth, escaped from Sydney on Wentworth’s ketch Alice, which had been lying in Vaucluse Bay, taking with them some provisions, wine and plate stolen from a house belonging to him at Vaucluse. One of the convicts was already among Wentworth’s men on the vessel, which was under the command of Hamilton Ross and the Mate John House. The boat sailed past Newcastle and entered Port Stephens, coming to anchor in Nelson’s Bay or Salamander Bay. It was dark by then. The next morning one of the convicts and House, who knew the harbour, were put ashore to get water. The convict came back with an aboriginal who wanted to sell some fish. House remained on shore, and Ross was allowed to go ashore as well after he refused to join the convicts. One of the convicts, Joseph Kay, gave Ross a written discharge and an order on Mr. Wentworth for his pay, which Kay signed as commander of the Alice. (According to evidence, he had a grudge against Mr. Wentworth for punishment dealt out some six weeks before, and was threatening to murder him, a threat Mr. Wentworth took seriously, especially as he discovered some poison hidden away.) Ross and House came across a camp of aborigines and persuaded one of them to guide them to Newcastle. Three days after seizure of the vessel the Revenue Cutter Prince George under Captain Roach went in pursuit. The ketch had been seen passing Newcastle and Roach, proceeding towards Port Stephens, saw a sail at sea and gave chase. The vessel put off a boat and ran into shore itself, the convicts escaping into the bush. The cutter put into a bay and some of the men walked round to the Alice and threw the provisions into the sea to deprive the convicts of them. Roach and six of his men tracked the pirates for four or five miles but then lost the trail. They returned to the Alice and dismasted her, then sailed on the cutter back to Port Stephens, where they alerted the Police Magistrate and joined a party of police in pursuit. Some aborigines were able to point out the location of the escapees, about fifty miles from Port Stephens. Meanwhile the cutter proceeded up the ‘Miaul River’, and the crew took the captured pirates on board for the return trip to Sydney.

Over the next few years we find a number of reports of land sales which refer to Nelson’s Bay. There is also the incident of the Daniel O’Connell, reported ‘high and dry on the beach at Nelson’s Bay’ in 1836. Finally in 1839 we encounter the Sophia Jane on a voyage from Moreton Bay to Sydney, anchoring in Nelson’s Bay for supplies.

Then in January 1840 comes news of another maritime incident and a change in terminology. On 23 December the cutter Water-Witch, putting out from Port Stephens, failed to cross the bar, went broadside to the breakers, and came to grief ‘on the rocks off Nelson Bay.’ Her cargo of maize and cedar was saved; but the possessive ‘s’ and its attendant apostrophe had gone.

Samuel: Australian 16/9/1829, p. 3. Alice: Sydney Herald 2/11/1835, p. 2. Daniel O’Connell: Australian 17/6/1836, p. 3. Sophia Jane: Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser 23/5/1839, p. 2. Water-Witch: Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser 4/1/1840, p. 2. ‘Baxter, Alexander Macduff (1798-1836?)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 1, 1966, pp. 74-75, and online.


Hallowe’en traditions from Scotland and Ireland evidently did not transplant easily to the Australian colonies. If anywhere in Australia there are long-established Hallowe’en observances, they must be limited to small sections of the population. In recent years some Hallowe’en customs (pumpkins, dressing up, trick-and-treating and the like) have become more widely adopted under American influence, but without the depth of tradition characteristic of the occasion in Britain in former centuries.

From old newspaper reports it is evident that even in Britain customs were changing. There are reports describing how Queen Victoria enjoyed watching the local villagers at their Hallowe’en celebrations, and we learn that she preferred the ‘new style’ celebrations, which apparently involved more bonfires. Descriptions of the occasion at Balmoral Castle were reproduced in the colonial papers in January or February, months after the event, owing to the slowness of communication, but readers were presumably no less fascinated by the details.

In 1867 we find Mr. W. Storrie giving an address at a December meeting of the South Australian Institute on the subject of Hallowe’en. We may surmise that he was sharing his extensive knowledge with an audience that had largely lost touch with the traditions. It seems that his account, like the Balmoral reports, is principally concerned with customs in Scotland. He explains the belief that, with good and bad spirits at large on All Hallow eve, it was possible by certain rituals to provoke them into revealing something of the future, especially with respect to people’s marriage prospects. It is clear that, amid the games and simple customs, the occasion stirred not only a sense of festivity but a frisson of romantic hopes and expectations.

The name ‘Halloween’ was given to a very fast, iron-hulled sailing ship that plied the tea trade between London and Shanghai from the early 1870s until 1887, when she was wrecked on the Devon coast in a gale, carrying over one and a half thousand tons of tea. Her maiden voyage (1871) was to Sydney, and she took back a load of wool. On that occasion she sailed from the Channel to Sydney in 69 days, an extraordinarily fast time, and 67 days in 1872. The State Library of Victoria has a postcard showing the ‘Halloween’, and there are photographs (not many) in some other state libraries.

‘Miscellaneous extracts’, South Australian Advertiser Saturday 9 February 1867, p. 3 (‘Hallowe’en at Balmoral’); ‘South Australian Institute’, South Australian Advertiser Saturday 21 December 1867, p. 3. Cargo of tea: cf. The Treasures of Salcombe (diving information; 1600 tons). 69 days: Submerged (diving website); 67 days: Sydney Morning Herald Monday 9 September 1872, p. 4 (description of ship and cargo).

Recent literature includes: Jason Bivins, Religion of Fear: The Politics of Horror in Conservative Evangelicalism, New York – Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008 (on fear, Evangelicalism and American culture).